Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses found mostly in animals. In humans, they can cause diseases ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). The disease caused by the new coronavirus has been named COVID-19. COVID-19 most commonly spreads from an infected person to another person through close contact, contaminated surfaces and/or common greetings such as handshakes, hugs or kisses . Thymox disinfectant spray (EPA-87742-1) has demonstrated effectiveness against human coronavirus strain 229E and is expected to inactivate the SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19), which is listed by Health Canada for use against coronavirus (COVID-19).
COVID-19 (Coronavirus) in Ontario
Disinfectants are chemical agents designed to inactivate or destroy microorganisms on inert surfaces. Disinfection does not necessarily kill all microorganisms, especially resistant bacterial spores; it is less effective than sterilization, which is an extreme physical or chemical process that kills all types of life. (Wikipedia)
Cleaning removes dust, debris and dirt from a surface by scrubbing, washing and rinsing.
Sanitizing reduces the bacteria identified on the product’s label on surfaces and in laundry.
Disinfecting destroys or inactivates both the bacteria and viruses identified on the product’s label (like influenza and rhinovirus) on hard, nonporous surfaces.
Sterilization refers to any process that removes, kills, or deactivates all forms of life and other biological agents like prions present in a specific surface, object or fluid, for example food or biological culture media. (Wikipedia)
Common active ingredients present on disinfectant, sanitizer, or cleaning products
Thymol is a component found in thyme oil, which is a naturally occurring mixture of compounds from, the thyme plant, according to the EPA (The United States Environmental Protection Agency). It is typically used in pesticide products such as animal repellents, fungicidal products, medical disinfectants, tuberculocides, and virucides. It also can be used in perfumes, food flavorings, mouthwashes, pharmaceutical preparations, and cosmetics. However, this plant-based ingredient also reaps many antimicrobial properties, allowing to clean their homes without the harsh smells of chemicals or bleach. Its cleaner and disinfectant can be used on all types of hard and non-porous surfaces such as wood, metal, plastic, glass or mirrors. It is non-toxic and non-irritant. (For COVID-19)
Quat is the common name for Quaternary Ammonium Chloride Compounds. The disadvantage of Quat is the price in comparison to bleach. Quat can also have reduced activity in the presence of soil. However, Quat has excellent wide spectrum germ kill ability, film forming residual, low toxicity and corrosivity. Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are surface-active substances containing a quaternary cationic nitrogen atom, substituted by alkyl chains of varying length. They are used as biocides or pesticides. “Quaternary ammonium compounds can cause toxic effects by all routes of exposure including inhalation, ingestion, dermal application and irrigation of body cavities. They can produce systemic toxicity due to their curare-like properties. They can also cause allergic reactions.
N-alkyl ethylbenzyl dimethyl ammonium is a quaternary ammonium compound with surfactant properties. It is found in sanitizing solutions or soaps as an active ingredient due to its antimicrobial properties.
Alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chlorides (BACs) are one type of QACs that has been implicated in causing adverse health effects. However, exposure to QACs does have the potential to cause serious and preventable health effects.
Benzalkonium chloride (BZK, BKC, BAK, BAC), also known as alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) and by the trade name Zephiran, is a type of cationic surfactant. It is an organic salt classified as a quaternary ammonium compound.
Benzalkonium chloride topical Side Effects. Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Oxychlorine compounds oxychlorination is a process for making C-Cl bonds. In contrast with direct use of Cl2, oxychlorination uses hydrogen chloride in combination with oxygen. This process is attractive industrially because hydrogen chloride is less expensive than chlorine. (Wikipedia )
Peracetic acid (PAA) is a highly biocidal oxidizer that maintains its efficacy in the presence of organic soil. Peracetic acid removes surface contaminants (primarily protein) on endoscopic tubing and is used mainly in the food industry, where it is applied as a cleanser and as a disinfectant. An automated machine using peracetic acid to sterilize medical, surgical, and dental instruments chemically (e.g., endoscopes, arthroscopes) was introduced in 1988. Oxidizing biocides are chemicals that have the ability to kill microorganisms through the electrochemical process of oxidation. An oxidizing agent such as chlorine pulls electrons in, while the bacteria it is attacking loses electrons.
Hypochlorous acid (HOCl or HClO) is a weak acid that forms when chlorine dissolves in water, and itself partially dissociates, forming hypochlorite, ClO−. HClO and ClO− are oxidizers, and the primary disinfection agents of chlorine solutions.
Hydrogen chloride has many uses, including cleaning, pickling, electroplating metals, tanning leather, and refining and producing a wide variety of products. Hydrogen chloride can be formed during the burning of many plastics. Upon contact with water, it forms hydrochloric acid.
Hydrochloric Acid our stomach makes it naturally to help digest your lunch. It's used industrially to process steel, the material of choice for suspension bridges and cars and trucks. Hydrochloric acid is also used in the production of batteries, photoflash bulbs and fireworks. Hydrochloric acid is corrosive to the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes.
Hydrogen peroxide is a powerful disinfectant that will kill bacteria like staph and viruses like the H1N1 virus, SARS and coronavirus. Hydrogen peroxide does kill germs, including most viruses and bacteria. A concentration of 3% hydrogen peroxide is an effective disinfectant typically found in stores. The most common peroxide is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), colloquially known simply as "peroxide". It is marketed as a solution in water at various concentrations. Since hydrogen peroxide is nearly colorless, so are these solutions. It is mainly used as an oxidant and bleaching agent. Hydrogen peroxide can damage some surfaces and must handle with cautions.
Citric acid is a disinfectant used against a variety of bacteria and viruses. A test-tube study showed that it may be effective in treating or preventing human norovirus, a leading cause of foodborne illness. Citric acid is commercially sold as a general disinfectant and cleaning agent for removing soap scum, hard water stains, lime, and rust.
Chlorine found in: Scouring powders, toilet bowl cleaners, mildew removers, laundry whiteners, and household tap water, also in certain city water to get rid of bacteria. The health risks from chlorine can be acute, and they can be chronic; it’s a respiratory irritant at an acute level.
Alcohol Alcohol has been used as a hand sanitizer since 1888, and the disinfecting qualities of ethanol and isopropanol are well-proven. While washing hands for 20 seconds with soap and water is always preferable, alcohol-based hand sanitizer can be a good alternative, if used properly. A 2020 review of alcohol-based hand sanitizers found that sanitizers which were 60% to 95% alcohol kill germs most effectively, provided that at least 2.4 milliliters of hand sanitizer was applied for 25 to 30 seconds. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) says alcohol-based hand sanitizers must contain at least 60% alcohol to be effective. Alcohol kills germs by breaking down its cell walls.
Ethanol is an important industrial chemical; it is used as a solvent, in the synthesis of other organic chemicals, and as an additive to automotive gasoline (forming a mixture known as a gasohol). Ethanol is also the intoxicating ingredient of many alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits.
Methanol also known as methyl alcohol amongst other names, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH). It is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable liquid with a distinctive alcoholic odour similar to that of ethanol.
Ethanol and methanol are just two kinds of alcohols. Ethanol that is also known as ethyl alcohol falls with the chemical structure with two carbon atoms. While methanol, also known as methyl alcohol is composed of only one carbon atom.